On July 1, 1863, the pivotal, three-day Civil War Battle of Gettysburg, resulting in a Union victory, began in Pennsylvania.
In 1867, Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North America Act took effect.
In 1903, the first Tour de France began. (It ended on July 19; the winner was Maurice Garin.)
In 1944, delegates from 44 countries began meeting at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, where they agreed to establish the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
In 1946, the United States exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.
In 1962, the African nations of Burundi and Rwanda became independent of Belgium.
In 1963, the U.S. Post Office inaugurated its five-digit ZIP codes