On July 12, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed a bill authorizing the Army Medal of Honor.

In 1909, the House of Representatives joined the Senate in passing the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, allowing for a federal income tax, and submitted it to the states. (It was declared ratified in February 1913.)

In 1943, Russians halt German advance in a decisive battle at Kursk.

In 1960, the Etch A Sketch drawing toy, invented by French electrician Andre Cassagnes, was produced by the Ohio Art Co.

In 1962, The Rolling Stones played their first-ever gig at The Marquee in London.

In 1965, the Beach Boys single “California Girls” was released by Capitol Records.

In 1984, U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major-party ticket, as running mate to Democratic candidate Walter F. Mondale.